PowerPoint Presentation (12-14 SLIDES)

Essentials of MIS (14th Edition) Kenneth C. Laudon and Jane P. Laudon
 12-1 How should managers build a business case for the acquisition and development of a new information system?  The business case for an IT investment describes the problem facing the organization that can be solved by investing in a proposed system solution. It provides an analysis of whether an information system project is a good investment by calculating its costs and benefits. Tangible benefits are quantifiable, and intangible benefits cannot be immediately quantified but may provide quantifiable benefits in the future. Benefits that exceed costs should then be analyzed using capital budgeting methods to make sure they represent a good return on the firm’s invested capital. Organizations should develop an information systems plan that describes how information technology supports the company’s overall business plan and strategy. Portfolio analysis and scoring models can be used to evaluate alternative information systems projects.  
12-2 What are the core problem-solving steps for developing a new information system?  The core problem-solving steps for developing new information systems are: (1) define and understand the problem, (2) develop alternative solutions, (3) evaluate and choose the solution, and (4) implement the solution. The third step includes an assessment of the technical, financial, and organizational feasibility of each alternative. The fourth step entails finalizing design specifications, acquiring hardware and software, testing, providing training and documentation, conversion, and evaluating the system solution once it is in production. 
 12-3 What are the alternative methods for building information systems?  The systems life cycle requires information systems to be developed in formal stages. The stages must proceed sequentially and have defined outputs; each requires formal approval before the next stage can commence. The system life cycle is rigid and costly but useful for large projects.  Prototyping consists of building an experimental system rapidly and inexpensively for end-users to interact with and evaluate. The prototype is refined and enhanced until users are satisfied that it includes all their requirements and can be used as a template to create the final system. End-user-developed systems can be created rapidly and informally using user-friendly software tools. End-user development can improve requirements determination and reduce application backlog.  Application software packages and SaaS eliminate the need for writing software programs when developing an information system. Application software packages and SaaS are helpful if a firm does not have the internal information systems staff or financial resources to custom-develop a system.  Outsourcing consists of using an external vendor to build (or operate) a firm’s information systems. If it is properly managed, outsourcing can save application development costs or enable firms to develop applications without an internal information systems staff.  Rapid application design, agile development, joint application design (JAD), cloud-based platforms, and reusable software components (including web services) can be used to speed up the system’s development process. Mobile application development must address multiple platforms, small screen sizes, and the need to conserve resources. 
 12-4 How should information systems projects be managed?  Information systems projects and the entire implementation process should be managed as a planned organizational change using organizational impact analysis. Management support and control of the implementation process are essential, as are mechanisms for dealing with the level of risk in each new systems project. Project risks are influenced by project size, project structure, and the level of technical expertise of the information systems staff and project team. Formal planning and control tools (including Gantt and PERT charts) track resource allocations and specific project activities. Users can be encouraged to take active roles in systems development and become involved in installation and training. 

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