cystitis, prostate cancer and osteoarthritis

 

Cystitis

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Ms. Vance, age 28 years, has noticed urgency, frequency, and dysuria recently, as well as an unusual odor to the urine. Urinalysis indicated a heavy concentration of Escherichia coli in the urine, some pus, and WBCs. Ms. T was prescribed antibiotics, which she took for the first few days. This seemed to give her relief, but she then stopped taking the medication. Within a few days, the symptoms returned, but she decided to “just live with it.”

Question 1: Explain why women are predisposed to cystitis.
Question 2: What preventive measures are important in reducing recurrence?
Question 3: Discuss other signs and symptoms that may indicate cystitis.
Question 4: What potential problems may she experience if she does not adhere to the treatment prescribed?

Extra Resources to help you:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20371306
https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cystitis/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371311

Prostate Cancer

Mr. Rader, age 52 years, is undergoing a routine physical examination for his employer. During palpation of the prostate, the physician noted a hard nodule on the gland’s periphery. Lab tests revealed an elevated PSA level. The remainder of the examination did not reveal any other abnormalities.

Question 1: Using the information given, discuss the presentation of cancer of the prostate.
Question 2: Discuss the predisposing factors for prostate cancer and identify the high-risk groups.
Question 3: Discuss the variation in the growth and course of this type of cancer.
Question 4: Discuss how the decision to treat or not to treat is made early in the course of prostate cancer.
Question 5: If metastasis occurs, what additional manifestations will occur, and how will they be treated?

Resources to help you:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prostate-cancer/symptoms-causes/syc-20353087
https://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostate-cancer.html

Osteoarthritis

Mr. Filstrup is a 38-year-old man in overall good health who has been complaining about an aching pain in his knees when working around the house and often when simply walking. He has noticed that his knees feel “hard” and tight. His history indicates that he has always been involved in athletics and was on the college football team, but recently family responsibilities and work have not made it easy for him to exercise.

Question 1: Relate Mr. Filstrup’s case history to the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis.
Question 2: How do anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics help Mr. Filstrup deal with this form of arthritis? Why is moderate, non–weight-bearing exercise recommended?
Question 3: What is the probable prognosis for Mr. Filstrup?

Resources to help you:

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteoarthritis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351925
https://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/osteoarthritis.htm

pathophysiology

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