CJUS 820-DISCUSSION 7-REPLY2
The response must be 250 words and use at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include texts, articles, presentations, the Bible, blogs, videos, etc.
Textbook: Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2019). Terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson. ISBN: 9780134818146.
Organizations Slated with Protection of the United States and its Interests
There are several organizations slated with the protection of the United States and its interests. Some of these organizations are the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), State and Local Law Enforcement, and the U.S. Attorney’s Office (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Taylor and Swanson (2019) add that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM), and the United States Marine Corps (USMC) protect U.S. interests. All these organizations and others must work together to protect U.S. interests at home and abroad.
Role of the Organizations in preventing Terror Attacks at Home and Abroad
U.S. Department of Treasury
The Office for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence of the United States Department of Treasury is charged with the dual mission of protecting the financial system from illicit use and combating rogue nations (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Also, terrorist facilitators, weapons of mass destruction proliferators, money launderers, drug kingpins, and other national security threats. Numerous units are responsible for the intelligence and enforcement functions. The Department of Treasury’s anti-terrorism efforts is shown by its investigations into potential criminal cases involving charity giving.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
The FBI’s top priority is to protect the United States against terrorist strikes (What We Investigate: Terrorism, 2021). What We Investigate: Terrorism (2021) argues that the Bureau collaborates closely with its partners to eliminate terrorist cells and operatives operating within the United States, assist in dismantling extremist networks globally, and cut off funding and other kinds of support to foreign terrorist organizations. There are two main types of terrorism, international and domestic (What We Investigate: Terrorism,2021). International terrorism is the commission of violent, illegal acts by people and groups inspired by or affiliated with designated foreign terrorist organizations or governments (state-sponsored). Domestic terrorism is criminal acts undertaken by individuals and groups to further ideological aims originating in domestic factors, such as political, religious, social, racial, or environmental (What We Investigate: Terrorism, 2021).
Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)
The United States government established immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in 2003 as part of the Department of Homeland Security (Whan-Choi, 2018). Whan-Choi (2018) argue that The United States government established immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in 2003 as part of the Department of Homeland Security. ICE is charged with the responsibility of enforcing the nation’s immigration laws in an appropriate, legal, and equitable manner, as well as apprehending and removing individuals who constitute a threat to American national security (Whan-Choi, 2018). ICE is charged with the responsibility of enforcing the nation’s immigration laws in an appropriate, legal, and equitable manner, as well as apprehending and removing individuals who constitute a threat to American national security (Whan-Choi, 2018).
State and Local Law Enforcement
The terrorist attacks of September 11th (9/11) had a tremendous effect on the law enforcement profession (Johnson & Hunter, 2016). Johnson and Hunter (2016) argue that numerous agencies felt insecure as it became clear that agencies at all levels would have to deal with the possibility of terrorism in the United States, and numerous agencies were unsure of their tasks. On the front lines of anti- and counter-terrorism actions, local law enforcement agencies are seen as the “eyes and ears” of the community (Taylor & Swanson, 2019, p. 394). Some agencies have their counter-terrorism units, while others are members of combined federal and local joint terrorism task forces (JTTFs), which are overseen by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) (Taylor & Swanson, 2019).
U.S. Attorney’s Office
Each United States Attorney’s Office has a significant role in combating domestic and international terrorism (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). One method in which this role is represented is through an Anti-Terrorism Advisory Council. The Anti-Terrorism Advisory Council is chaired by a United States Attorney and includes representatives from the National Guard, state, municipal, and federal law enforcement organizations (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Taylor and Swanson (2019) argue that the Anti-Terrorist Advisory Council’s mission is to deter, detect, and prevent future terrorist attacks within the United States by establishing partnerships that coordinate anti-terrorism efforts, initiate and support counter-terrorism training programs, and facilitate information sharing across all levels of government.
The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
The TSA is a Department of Homeland Security component in the United States (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). The TSA is charged with ensuring the security of America’s transportation systems and the freedom of people and trade. According to Taylor and Swanson (2019), the federal air marshals are one of the TSA’s enforcements arms; they are primarily responsible for aviation transportation assets’ domestic and international security. For instance, commercial aircraft.
U.S. Department of Energy
Terrorism involving a nuclear weapon is a public issue and the federal government’s immediate attention (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). The FBI is responsible for investigating criminal acts involving nuclear materials within the United States, including terrorist threats involving the use of nuclear materials, under the Atomic Energy Act (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). A series of presidential orders authorize the National Nuclear Security Administration of the Department of Energy to give technical assistance to the FBI. Taylor and Swanson (2019) add that Nuclear Emergency Support Teams (NESTS) can search for and identify nuclear materials, analyze potential nuclear devices, render them safe, and package them for transit to a site of final disposition in a terrorist event.
NORTHCOMM is responsible for the United States Department of Defense (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Also, the planning, organization, and execution of military assistance to civil authorities during emergencies, catastrophes, and terrorist attacks. Taylor and Swanson (2019) add that NORTCOMM establishes the force protection levels for DoD installations, facilities, and units within its area of responsibility. Force protection is a counter-terrorism endeavor described as the proactive steps to neutralize hostile activities against Department of Defense troops and family members, resources, installations, and essential information (Taylor & Swanson, 2019).
The United States Marine Corps (USMC)
The Chemical, Biological, and Immediate Response Force are one of the USMC’s anti-terrorism forces (CBIRF) (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). A battalion-sized unit capable of being deployed within 24 hours to a terrorist incident anywhere in the world. CBIRF is made of Marines and Navy sailors from a variety of disciplines. When there is a genuine threat of or actual incident, CBIRF will help local, state, and federal agencies, as well as military commanders (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). CBIRF may be placed under the direction of NORTHCOMM depending on the facts surrounding an occurrence.
Combatting terrorism requires courage. Our Lord says, “Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your heart, all ye that hope in the LORD” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Psalms 31). Also, our Lord says in Ezra 10:4, “Arise; for this matter belongeth unto thee: we also will be with thee: be of good courage and do it.” Finally, our Lord says in Isaiah 41:6, “They helped every one his neighbour; and every one said to his brother, Be of good courage.”