CJUS 820-DISCUSSION 6- REPLY 2
The response must be 250 words and use at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include texts, articles, presentations, the Bible, blogs, videos, etc.
Textbook: Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2019). Terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson. ISBN: 9780134818146.
The United States’ critical infrastructure and key resources are attractive targets for terrorists because of the debilitating impact a terrorist attack would have on the nation’s systems and assets (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). The all-hazards model acknowledges the need for planning and response to major catastrophic events (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). The all-hazard model recognized that most major catastrophic events require similar resources and responses, whether biological or natural disasters (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Terrorism response is divided into two specific areas: crisis management and consequence management (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). The responsibility of federal agencies is to mitigate the damage to life and property from terrorist attacks (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Critical Infrastructure includes the communication sector, emergency services sector, energy sector, dams sector, nuclear sector, water sector, chemical sector, commercial facilities sector, healthcare, and public health sector, food and agriculture sector, critical manufacturing sector, transportation sector, government facilities sector, banking, and finance sector, defense industry sector, and information technology sector (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). The National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) defined those sixteen sectors as essential and critical to the United States’ safety, health, and security (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Most of the infrastructure sectors are vulnerable to cyber-attacks, which could result in a catastrophic death toll. For example, a cyber-attack on the energy sector could result in heat loss in the winter and air conditioning in the summer for households across the United States (Baggott & Santos, 2020). The elderly and infirmed would be the most vulnerable to a terror attack on this vital sector. People could freeze to death or die from heat exposure inside their homes. An attack on the energy sector could also affect hospitals, the food sector, and the banking system. Emergency services would be adversely affected by a cyber-attack on the energy sector, disrupting 911 emergency calls and law enforcement’s ability to communicate in a catastrophic event (Baggott & Santos, 2020).
Recommendations to Secure Critical Infrastructure
Alex Wilner (2017) examined the cyber-deterrence theory to prevent future attacks on the critical infrastructure in the United States. Wilner (2017) explains that infrastructure should be segregated into two areas: hardware and software. The hardware includes “engines, machines, systems, facilities, and processes that comprise infrastructure,” and software includes “information systems, digital links, data, control systems, and web-based platforms” (Wilner, 2017, p. 311). Wilner references the NIPP’s ability to address these critical infrastructures from an offensive deterrence divided into two areas: physical and digital deterrence (Wilner, 2017). The most effective way to secure and protect critical infrastructure is to enhance the defenses, promote retaliation protocols, strengthen cyber attribution, and develop a resolute redline policy on foreign or domestic actions that pose a risk to the physical and digital infrastructure (Wilner, 2017).
Christian World View
The United States government is responsible, its primary responsibility, is to protect the American people from foreign and domestic threats. Scripture tells us to have faith in the Lord and the HE will protect us from evil (Thessalonians 3:3-5, NIV). Christians should have faith in the Lord and his perseverance to protect us, by giving the government the ability to protect us from those who want to harm us (Thessalonians 3:3-5, NIV).