CJUS 820-DISCUSSION 6-REPLY 1

The response must be 250 words and use at least 2 scholarly citation(s) in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include texts, articles, presentations, the Bible, blogs, videos, etc.
Textbook: Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2019). Terrorism, intelligence, and homeland security (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson. ISBN: 9780134818146.

***RYAN***
The United States has one of the most robust critical infrastructures in the world, serving the approximate 330 million citizens that occupy the county. For reference, the United States’ critical infrastructure is comprised of major sectors that collectively constitute the necessary resources, facilities, and governing bodies that allow the United States to function (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Currently, there are 16 different sectors within the United States. For example, the nuclear, water, and transportation sectors are all separated as they are individually vital for the United States to function (Cheshmehzangi, 2021; Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Unfortunately, government leaders have learned that since each sector is essential to the United States’ level of functionality, they are significant targets for opposing military forces and provide numerous opportunities for any type of terroristic or criminal attack (Taylor & Swanson, 2019). Therefore, and perhaps less obvious, each critical infrastructure sector has apparent vulnerabilities that, if not mitigated for, open the United States to significant financial and information loss (Collier & Lackoff, 2008).
       A vast number of vulnerabilities exist for United States critical infrastructure, some more apparent than others. One of the most distinguished vulnerabilities that exist in the United States involves the technological realm of cyber security (Collier & Lackoff, 2008; Humphreys, 2019). Every single critical infrastructure sector utilizes the internet, digital accounts, web-based communication, and software that helps to manage at least a fraction of their businesses and services online (Humphreys, 2019). Online activities are becoming increasingly risky to operate, especially considering that they can become infiltrated, extorted from, and repurposed by terrorists, cybercriminals, or hackers (Kadir et al., 2019). In fact, the cyber security enterprise within the United States has become a significant focus of homeland security due to the exponential rise in online data and system breaches (Kadir et al., 2019). Unfortunately, all of the critical infrastructure sectors have experienced cyber-attacks. Cyber attacks are often difficult to predict and undoubtedly challenging to prosecute. A study by Brantly (2018) contends that many cybercriminals or terrorists do not feel the effects of deterrence as robustly when committing cybercrimes. Instead, cybercriminals or terrorists can hide behind a screen and perhaps thousands of miles from their victims (Brantly, 2018).
       Concerning recommendations toward mitigating cybercrime and cyberterrorism, several options exist. Srinivas et al. (2019) make several suggestions on how public, private, and government cyber entities can keep their systems secure in the wake of increasing cybercrime, cyberterrorism, and hacking operations. They suggest that cybersecurity is established best when policy-makers incorporate standardization within all cyber activities (Srinivas et al., 2019). For example, private and public businesses need to establish a standardized procurement process when obtaining new cyber equipment. Srinivas et al. (2019) contend that following a standardized procurement process that is methodically researched and emplaced within the policy will keep companies safer. He and Zhang (2019) focus on the importance of workplace education on cyber systems. They explain that all companies and government entities should require ongoing cyber security training and programs (He & Zhang, 2019). When its importance is emphasized and embedded within a company’s culture, online security training can drastically reduce cyberattacks and prevent massive grief due to financial or informational loss (He & Zhang, 2019; Srinivas et al., 2019). Whereas many more recommendations exist, it is essential to include a Christian worldview perspective within the mix. The Holy Bible highlights the essentialness of being prepared and trained well to prevent future problems, which is undoubtedly relevant regarding cyber security, “That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works” (King James Bible, 1769/2021, 2 Timothy 3:17).
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