670w2resP1

Please read each passage below, I need a few sentences in response to each part. Please use at least one source. Please cite the reference(s) properly. Also, keep in mind when responding first identify a non-traditional or creative way in which a corporation might be punished for committing a crime. Then discuss the consequences of implementing that punishment to the example used by your parts.
PART 1
Who is the Bigger Threat? 
A crime committing corporation is the greater threat to society. An individual who commits a crime against a business can only do so much damage to a corporation. Also in the corporation’s favor, it most likely has insurance and legal protection. The likelihood of a corporation recovering from an individual’s criminal action is high. 
Corporate Violation 
On the other hand, a corporation that violates EPA laws can cause environmental damage and create medical issues for those close enough to be affected. A quick search on the EPA website and you can find a list of all EPA settlements. One example from 2020 was a settlement with Valero Energy for violation of Clean Air Act laws regarding benzene testing (EPA, 2020). The Ozone released due to this violation can cause chest pains, congestion and worsen other preexisting ailments (EPA, 2020). The effects of the violation happen over time and can affect anyone who breaths in this Ozone. The violation of the corporation lingers, where the violation of the individual is more likely to be a moment in time. On top of this example, in more general terms, the vast reach and footprints of some corporations means they can hurt more people faster than most individual.  
References
Valero Energy Corporation, et al. Clean Air Act Settlement. (2020, October 26). US EPA. https://www.epa.gov/enforcement/valero-energy-corporation-et-al-clean-air-act-settlement (Links to an external site.) 
PART 2
Who Is the Bigger Threat?
I would argue that individuals attacking companies are the larger threat in society today. What comes to mind is how incredibly digital our world is today, how many online outlets we use for things like banking, shopping, mortgages, education, business, etc. Everything we do is online. As a society we have become familiar with headlines regarding security leaks or data breaches and the mad scrambles of those affected companies (and their customers) to find out who was affected and to what extent.
Current Event
A recent event that comes to mind is the cyber attack on the Colonial Pipeline. According to Turton and Mehrotra (2021), all it took to shut down the entire pipeline was a compromised password from one employee, and hackers were able to breach the company’s internal system. They left a ransom note demanding cryptocurrency as payment and the pipeline was shut down from May 7th to May 12th. Five days resulted in a nearly-nationwide gasoline shortage, long lines at the pump, many gas stations without fuel altogether, and higher prices for consumers. Individuals that attack companies are not just attacking the company, they attack customers of that company, employees of that company, and can affect operations and markets around the world by doing so. 
Turton, W., & Mehrotra, K. (2021, June 4). Hackers Breached Colonial Pipeline Using Compromised Password. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 26, 2021, from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-06-04/hackers-breached-colonial-pipeline-using-compromised-password (Links to an external site.). 

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